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Devanagari (from Sanskrit. Devanagari; deva "god" + nagari "city") - a letter alphanumeric - syllabic, used in the northern, western and central India, recording a dozen languages with a group of Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali. Developed according to researchers from Western Brahmi letters, older forms of Indian writings, the earliest form of which is widely known from inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka (Half wpech III.). According to the caste brahmanów but it is very ancient Devanagari script, which was already the time of Krishna, but was only used by the caste Brahmins, initiated in Wede and was therefore unknown. Brahmi Scripture was to be a kind of folk magazine, unlike the divine matters reserved for Devanagari.

It consists of fifty-five characters, including a 16-vowel here and more than 300 ligatures, bundles of two or more syllables. Record Devanagari characters is horizontal, from left to right.Typical of them is a horizontal line (Matra) of each letter and ligature marks in addition to DHA and bha, whose line is incomplete. The letter also has a few Devanagari characters and punctuation marks of the importance of the phonetic. The oldest known inscriptions have so far come from the VII century, Arab and Latin numbers come from Devanagari, which is more of Sanskrit culture. Devanagari is a symbolic statement of principle, its characters are the subject of contemplation and mystical? Philosophy? I. It is still used in India for the languages: Sanskrit (Sanskrit), Hindi, Marathi, Nepali (Nepali), and other nevari as Awadhi, Bagh, bhatneri, bhili, Bihari, braj bhasha, chhattisgarhi, garhwali, Gondi, harauti, ho , jaipuri, kachchhi, kanauji, Konkani, kului, kumaoni, tap, KURUKH, Marwari, mundari, palpa, and Santali.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit (Devanagari: संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam; sa.msk.rtaa bhaa.saa from sa.m + kr - collate, submitted; bhaa.saa - language, "into an orderly, in contrast to natural languages - prakrytów, ie, a folk "disordered" grammar) literary language of ancient, medieval and wczesnonowożytnych India. Indoaryjskiej belongs to Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European language family group. Despite the widespread belief in Europe that is a dead language like Latin, in principle, is not, because not only is still constantly used in Hindu religious ceremonies, but also there are small groups of people who declare him as their only mother tongue, according to population censuses of 1999 r. - about 3,000 people at more than 900 million of India's population then. Efforts are also attempts to revitalize this language through the creation of Sanskrit neologisms to describe contemporary terms, such as technical (eg, television, Sanskrit. Duuradarshana). It is also recognized in 1949 as one of the 13 constitutional languages of the Republic of India (currently 1923 - 2008.). Therefore, it is more appropriate to determine it as a liturgical language than wegetujący or dead. Sanskrit is a language group satemowej - k praindoeuropejskie soft over there in t, as in the Polish language satem s. If the group is a group of genetic, it means that Polish is more closely related to Sanskrit than eg German or French. The hypothesis on the distribution of Indo-European group and kentum satem Today, however, is increasingly called into question, although not right.There are at least three varieties of Sanskrit:
Vedic Sanskrit - used now about XV-VII wpech., including in the Vedas, when it was used as the only language, but brahmanów tradition maintains that the Sanskrit and Vedic scriptures there were already 6,000 years bad luck., as is clear from the writings and teachings.

Classical Sanskrit - the period when it was used mainly by the educated classes, namely Brahmin Varna and the knight (kszatrija), often as a second language, in the codified version ("ordered") by Panini (IV century BC) is the correct language of Indian culture, India, Latin used until modern times, it appeared at that time only the name "Sanskrit".

Sanskrit poklasyczny mixed (called Hybrid Sanskrit), in which there are elements (or receipts) of the ancient languages of the people, the languages spoken in India, prakrytów and Pali, the variety that occurs predominantly in the heterodox religious texts of India, Buddhism and Jainism (there are a variety called. epigraphic such as the cave inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka, III-II wpech. wdały When these religions in the debates of Hinduism (III-XI century), Sanskrit texts lost their hybrid characteristics, and also became a Sanskrit classic, yet preserves the specific technical terminology .

The differences between these varieties are mainly in the vocabulary, and grammar are not large enough to smooth the holder of one of them was not able to read texts without any problems in the other two.

Sanskrit has a characteristic phonetics, significantly different from Polish. All vowels are short versions (eg, a) and long (eg ā). There vowel sonants. R. L, and long. Rr and. Ll. Consonants compact - both voiceless and voiced - are unaspirated and aspirated version. This is part of the archaic and maintained under the influence of the substrate prior to the Dravidian languages of the Indian subcontinent. In Sanskrit, there are a number of consonants cerebralnych - pronounced like the tooth, but with the tongue raised to the top of the palate - praindoeuropejskiemu sounds strange, but characteristic of the other languages of the Indian subcontinent: Dravidian and mundajskich. Sanskrit, like the Polish, t differs from s (cerebralnego more than Polish) and the presence of the part. Sounds are sorted by order of the alphabet Devanagari, which has 16 vowels. Characteristic of the phonetics of Sanskrit sandhi phenomenon, ie the phonetic changes at the border of words, resulting in a regular phenomenon, such as: blending into one long vowel, diphthong or a vowel with an initial end of the next word, it assimilates in contact with each other or the elision of consonants.Półsylabiczny Sanskrit alphabet, the letter dewaanaagari, is a magazine for science, strictly phonetic, so save all those changes.

There are many systems of the transcription of Sanskrit in Latin - one of the special use of diacritical marks, the other without them. The most widely used in the world (including India) transcription adopted by the International Congress of Orientalists in Geneva in 1899, applying a dash over the letter to denote a long vowel, a dot under the letter to indicate cerebral consonant (or sonantu samogłoskowego) and the dot above the letters I tylnojęzykowymi n. (sometimes written with a dot is in meters, but that's a question of technical capacity, should be the m, as in the original is on the phone).

There is a transcript used on the websites of the journal Philosophy East and West, which saves the long vowels as double, and puts a dot under the letter before it. There are other transcription systems specially adapted for the Internet: system Veldhuis, ITAR-ITRANS scheme, did not use dots, just different combinations of uppercase and lowercase letters in Latin. In Poland since 1957 are in dispute among indologami (indianistami) and write Sanskrit words in Polish texts - whether the use of international transcription Oriental (called here "scientific"), whether using traditional transcription mindlessly assimilated bypass the length of the vowels and dots the letters cerebralnymi. Between the supporters of the record continues spolszczonego dispute on the record samogłoskowego sonantu. R as "r" (so-called school of Cracow-Wroclaw and Poznan school) or as "rice" (other schools), and on the palatal consonants - or save it as "part "and" dż "(school Krakow-Wroclaw and Warsaw's old school), or rather a" C "and" dz "(Warsaw's new school, the school and the school is the Lublin Poznan, with a new school of Warsaw and Poznan school record consonant 'presence' "dz", "N" and "S" nieortograficznie even before vowels, and the School of Lublin - in accordance with the rules of Polish orthography - turns them into "you", "today", "s" and "ni" before vowels) which introduces chaos and paranoia to impede the identification of meaningful concepts.

Sanskrit is the language of inflecting, having 8 cases (inflection of nouns and adjectives in three types according to one of nine types of varieties), three numbers (singular, dual and plural), a large number of verb forms (10 variations of the verb classes in 4 days from the derivatives of the present ; past 2 days, 2 and 3 times aorysty future, five or nieodmiennych imiesłowowych forms). As such, it was quite free word order, prevailed, however, SOV (subject, indirect object, the decision). Despite the wealth of variety, grammatical forms of the noun, in the classical Sanskrit formations predominated niefleksyjne: often very long nominal deposit, where the art is a proper analysis of the relationship between the components. The most common type of sentence is a nominal sentence. The occurrence of long assemblies of nominal and sandhi phenomenon causes the Sanskrit phrase is often written up a series of letters, looking like one word.

All living and extinct Indo-European languages of the Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives and parts of Central Asia (former Gandhara, Bactria and Sogdiana, today's Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan), or derived from the Sanskrit or show his strong influence. Strong influence of Sanskrit is also visible in the Dravidian languages and mundajskich, in the Tibetan language and the languages of Southeast Asia, belonging to other families of languages, especially in Indonesia - the language of Javanese called Kawi, but also in Burma, Thailand , Cambodia and the non-existent since the seventeenth century Czampy kingdom (present-day central Vietnam). In Sanskrit still create works of literary and scientific fields, especially in the field of classical Indian philosophy, Hindu religion and traditional knowledge, such as Ayurveda or Indian medicine, or science dharmaśastra righteousness and astrology. An estimated one third of traditional names for a destination in Poland is derived from Sanskrit, as well as great part of the ancient Polish vocabulary.

Classical Sanskrit - language średnioindyjski, a form of Sanskrit, derived from the Vedic language. The first grammar of classical Sanskrit, Panini has developed. Vedic language - erroneously thought to be extinct group of Indian language from Indo-European languages. It is the oldest form of staroindyjskiego language - Sanskrit, which is used widely in the period from fifteenth to fifth century BC. With it comes the classical Sanskrit. The name is derived from the Vedas, a collection of Indian texts, the oldest part - Rigveda (1500-1200 BC) - was written precisely in this language. Thus, these are some of the oldest records of Indo-European languages, live as recited by the secret language of over 8 million people are active in India's caste Brahmins (priests). The entire population of persons belonging to the caste brahmanów has more than 40 million people.

Panini (V century BC) - Indian grammarian, who created the first grammar of Sanskrit, composed of 3959 rules - Ashtadhyayi (Ośmioksiąg "). This was also the first known study of grammar in the world. Sri Panini is considered the precursor of formal linguistics. His work is still based on the study of Sanskrit. Indian legend says that when he studied Panini grammar, appeared to him by God Himself - Maheswara (Shiva), who struck 14 times in a drum called the mridangam. These sounds stretch out a set of sounds of Sanskrit in the form of 14 rules known as Shiva-Sutra. The most famous commentator on the works of Panini is Rishi Patanjali, who wrote Mahabhasya "Great commentary on Panini" in the second wpech.

Sanskrit - has long been widely recognized that Sanskrit is a distant ancestor of all Indo-European languages with the exception of Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Turkish, and the Basque. In addition to these five all European languages derive from a common ancestor, which was a group of dialects used by the tribes living on the steppes of southern Russia about 2000 years bad luck. On the relationship of Sanskrit with the languages of the West show the similarity of certain features directly visible, such as words Pitr - "father" and maatR - "Mother", and much less clear. For example, the Sanskrit word shvan - 'dog' is related to the Greek kyon, Latin canis, as well as German and English hound Hund, where k h represents the original Sanskrit cakra - "wheel" is related to the English wheel, those two words come from the ancient word kuekulo and which is also the ancestor of Greek and Old English kyklos hweogol, from which the wheel today. Entire hundreds of such similarities, not visible at first glance, have been established by linguists with almost total certainty.

The reader who has even little knowledge of Latin or Greek affiliation immediately recognize the verbal systems of these languages with Sanskrit verb system. For example, the variety present tense as the Sanskrit verb - "being" is as follows:

 asmi - I am smas - we are
 asi - you are stha - you are
 asti - is santi - they are

Vedic Sanskrit is in many ways closer than any other Indo-European language of that original language from which all originate. I allowed the discovery of Sanskrit Boppowi, Raskowi and other scholars of the first half of the last century to draw a clear pattern of relatedness between groups of Indo-European languages and to develop the science of comparative linguistics.

The oldest preserved form of Sanskrit letters - that which we find in Rygwedzie (Rgveda) - remains more or less in this respect as the dialect of classical Sanskrit, the classical Homeric Greek. In all its stages of development Sanskrit is a language with a very rich inflection, but in the Vedas we find many such forms, which then fallen into disuse. The verb is there a system of varieties that can compete with the Greek conjugation, rozporządzający huge parties and camera modes, which then was largely simplified. In Vedic language, as in later Sanskrit, the noun has eight cases, and both noun and verb are in addition to singular and plural - double the number. An important feature of Vedic Sanskrit is the tonic accent. Each word has a more important syllable accents that are not necessarily more strongly pronounced, but a higher tone than the other syllable, as in ancient Greek. The Sanskrit words the accent falls mostly - apart from exceptions caused by the specific rights of language - the same syllable, which emphasizes the Greek words related to them.

Sanskrit, as well as most of it derived from language, is also characterized by the presence of the aspirated consonants pronounced. The letter "k" without the aspiration is for the Indian completely different sound than "kh" is pronounced with a very strong aspiration - as more or less like the first syllable is pronounced the English word come. For the average European, the difference is difficult to notice. It derives from the language praindoeuropejskiego and penetrated thence to classical Greek, but where the aspirated sounds th, ph, ch lose their original wording before the beginning of the Christian era. Another significant feature of Vedic Sanskrit phonetics, also preserved to our times, is a series of so-called. "Peak" or "cerebralnych" consonants: T, Th, D, Dh, and N. For a Hindu, they are clearly distinct from those sounds, "dental" t, "dental" th, etc., although the Europeans only after a long osłuchaniu can learn to to distinguish. Sounds of "peak" was not in praindoeuropejskim; borrowed it at a very early period from the original inhabitants of India, the tribes of the proto-Dravidian or australoidalnych. Another significant feature is the predominance of Sanskrit phonetics vowels a and aa (A) over other vowels. Vedic Sanskrit language is subtle, full of strength and dignity.

In the centuries that followed Rygwedy composing, Sanskrit has been substantially changed. In the early centuries of the last millennium before the Christian era are missing a lot of old grammatical forms and grammar, to some extent be simplified, although it still remains a very complicated system. There are new words borrowed mostly from sources niearyjskich, while some of the past have been forgotten or changed their meaning. Under these conditions, doubts have emerged about the correct pronunciation and meaning of the older Vedic texts: it was thought that if you do not repeat them with absolute precision, not only lose their magic power, but come down on the misery of those who pronounce it incorrectly. With this concern for cleanliness Wed developed in India, knowledge of grammar and phonetics. The oldest Indian text linguistic, Nirukta (nirukta) Jaski (yaska), explaining the treaty outdated Vedic words, in the fifth century was bad luck. And provides a synthesis of many earlier studies of language. Great grammar, Panini (paaNini) Asztadhjaji (ashhTaadhyaayii) ("Eight Chapters"), was probably in the late fourth century, bad luck. At this stage, has already reached well into the classical form and since then much has changed, just enriching their vocabulary.

The phonetics of Sanskrit was already analyzed with a precision that is not matched any subsequent linguistic studies until the nineteenth century. One of the greatest achievements of India is their unique alphabet, starting with a vowel, followed by the consonants, all very scientifically classified by how they pronounce - in complete contrast to the chaotic and inaccurate the Latin alphabet, emerging organically for three millennia. Only after the discovery of the Indian Sanskrit phonetics arose in the West as a science. Rise of a great Panini grammar, which stabilized the Sanskrit language, it was possible thanks to the work of many previous generations of grammarians. Those precursors were able to identify the core as a key element of the word and drew up a list of about two thousand monosyllabic roots, thinking that since they just - by adding prefixes, suffixes and grammatical elements - all the words are derived. In fact, they were right, although they committed some mistakes and their etymological arguments are sometimes false. The research became a source of interesting ideas in many areas of Indian thought.

Panini famous works of master limited by its specialized nature, but there is no doubt that it is one of the greatest achievements of all ancient cultures. Before the nineteenth century, in any part of the world was not more specific and more scientific grammar. This treaty includes over 4000 rules, saved for some kind of shorthand, using individual letters and syllables as symbols of cases, modes, people, times and other categories, which are classified according to linguistic phenomena. Panini immense lecture brevity makes it hard to read without any prior study of language and appropriate commentary. Subsequent Indian grammar are mostly commentaries on Panini. The most important are Mahabhaszja (mahaabhaashhya) ("Great Commentary") Patanjali (Patanjali) from the second century before the Christian era and Kasík Writti (kaashikaa-vRtti) known as the Comment from Banaras, also Dżajaditji (jayaaditya) and Vamana (vaamana) from July age of bad luck.

Some of the later grammarians polemizowali Paninim minor matters, but basically the system has been so widely accepted that no writer or speaker from the circles of the court or the Brahmin had never dared to seriously question his theory. Thanks Rishi Panini into fixed and could now grow only under the rules of his system. Panini since I started this language called saMskRta, or "enhanced" or "purified" - as opposed to prakRta, or language "crude" folk dialects, which continue to develop in a spontaneous way. Panini Sanskrit, though simpler than the Vedic speech, but it is a very complicated language. At the beginning of learning is extremely difficult to learn the grammar rules established by the merger eufonicznych (sandhi), a development of tendencies already existing in the Vedic times. According to these principles as follows each word in a sentence is contingent upon the wording of the neighboring words.Thus, for example, avadat ("not told") is transformed into naavadat on uvaaca while (words having the same meaning) is transformed into novaaca; raamas uvaaca ("Rama said") - in RAAM uvaaca, raamas avadat - in raamo 'vadat, while Haris avadat - in harir avadat. There are many such rules that have been artificially imposed even Rygwedy texts, so that the researcher must often reconstruct the original wording of words to find the appropriate meter.

Aligning Sanskrit grammar, Panini probably relied on such a variety of Sanskrit, which were used in August in north-west. As a kind of lingua franca of the priestly class, the language gradually became the common speech, the ruling class. Maurjowie (Morjowie), like most Indian dynasty until the age Guptów, in its official pronouncements have used prakrytu. The first major dynasty using the Sanskrit were the Saka Udżdżajini; Rudradamana inscription is the oldest in Girnarze - apart from a few short and unimportant inscriptions - Sanskrit written document, we have. Every language, as long as it is spoken and written, tends to develop, and this development is largely about simplifying the structure. Sanskrit, however, hampered the authority of Panini, was unable to develop freely in this way. Over some of his minor rules relating to, for example, the appropriate use of time expressions of the past, przechodzono quietly to the agenda and the authors began using imperfektu, perfektu and aorystu without any semantic difference between them. But the principle of inflection have been retained. The only way in which Sanskrit can to some extent liberated from the variety of building long assembly, which was replaced by the entire body within the periods sentential grammar.

Already in Vedic literature and epopejach meet a lot of complex objects, but these are typically two and a maximum of three units, as for example English or a houseboat Blackbird. However, in the classical Sanskrit segments may be even twenty or thirty. Former classical poets like Kalidasa (kaalidaasa), are still quite cautious in the use of such words, though, and their six-row nouns are not uncommon, but in the earliest panegirykach court in Sanskrit there are huge deposit. For example, the emperor Samudragupta is defined as "the whole world związujący the disclosure of his forces and the [adoption] services [from the other kings], such as submitting a personal tribute, post news in the gift of girls and ask for the acts giving Garudy stamped in order to consolidate their authority over their lands "- all in one word, made up of twenty items.This remarkable tendency to use such long assemblies can be shaped in Sanskrit under the influence of Dravidian languages; starotamilskim in fact, having little grammatical forms, words compiled in long rows without explicit the relationships between them. If the components of the Sanskrit compound word treated as a separate, juxtaposed words - as for example in English "my top right-hand waistcoat pocket" ("my right upper vest pocket"), which, in Sanskrit would be considered a compound word - new structures of classical Sanskrit period become clear to us.

Along with a tendency to use long assemblies developed in Sanskrit is also a love of long sentences. In the mundane works Bans (Baan) and Subandhu (subandhu), written in the seventh century, and many songs later we find the authors of the opinion that the printing would take two or three pages. As if to increase these complications the authors have searched every possible play on words, so that the result in Sanskrit literature has become one of the most ornamental and most artificial literatures of the world. Characterized the Indians since ancient times is not weakened interest in the language of the Middle Ages. In this era have been preserved many valuable "dictionary" they are not similar to the alphabetically arranged dictionaries Western, but rather to such works as "Thesaurus" Roget - the type of dictionary formed departments. Contain a list of synonyms, or used in similar contexts, the words are often accompanied by brief definitions, and the whole is addressed in the form of a simple line.The most famous lexicographer - and author of the oldest in this area treaty przechowanego to our times - is Amarasinha (amarasiMha), which according to tradition, had to live in a time of Kalidasa. Another form of the dictionary, closer to our dykcjonarzy were homonyms list, classifying words having more than one meaning.

Indian also acquired interest in language philosophy, which a lot of attention devoted to reflection on the relationship between expression and its designate. School mimansy (miimaaMsaa), resuming the language of mysticism later Vedic period, proclaimed that every word is a reflection of eternal prototype, so that its meaning is eternal and immanent in it. Her adversaries, especially those of the school logicians njaji (nyaaya) argued the opposite: the relationship between the word and its meaning is purely conventional. So it was a controversy similar to the dispute between realists and nominalists in medieval Europe. Classical Sanskrit probably never handling the matter. This does not mean, however, that he was ever entirely dead language. Constituted after the official language of religion and state. People from the upper classes read and discussed in Sanskrit, and probably understood it to some extent the number of representatives of the lower layers. He was a kind of lingua franca for all parts of India and today Brahmins scholars from opposite ends of the country meeting at a famous place of pilgrimage talk to each other in Sanskrit, understanding each other perfectly.

Vedic language is perhaps already extinct Indian language group Indo-European languages. It is the oldest form of staroindyjskiego language - Sanskrit, which is used in the period from fifteenth to fifth century bad luck. With it comes the classical Sanskrit. The name is derived from the Vedas, a collection of Indian texts, whose oldest part - Rigveda (1500-1200 BC) - was written precisely in that language. Thus, these are some of the oldest records of Indo-European languages. Sanskrit is still used and needed a large group of Hindu caste Brahmins, estimated at more than 40 million people cares most ancient traditions of recitation of Vedic Sanskrit.
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